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 AMILAN™ Nylon Resin
 About heatresistant nylon resins CM1026 and CM3006
 General properties
General properties
Characteristics of heatresistant grades CM1026 and CM3006
CM1026 is the heatresistant grade of nylon 6, and CM3006 is the heatresistant grade of nylon 66. Nylons are heatresistant resins, having one of the highest melting points among thermoplastic resins. Toray's newly developed heatresistant grades CM1026 and CM3006 possess the superb heat resistance of nylon and exhibit minimal thermal degradation under very humid conditions. Additionally, Toray offers CM3006E as a heatresistant grade of nylon 66 designed for applications that require excellent electrical properties at high temperatures.
Mechanical properties
Table 1 compares the mechanical properties of CM1026 and CM3006 to general injectionmolding nylons CM1021 and CM3001N. There is virtually no difference in mechanical properties compared to the general grades. Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 show changes in the general properties (tensile yield strength, flexural modulus and Izodimpact strength) of CM1026 and CM3006 as a function of temperature.
Property  Unit  Test method (ASTM) 
CM1021  CM1026  

In a dry state  Atmospheric equilibrium water absorption 3.5% 
In a dry state  Atmospheric equilibrium water absorption 3.5% 

Tensileyield strength  kg/cm^{2}  D638  740  310  775  340 
Tensileyield elongation  %  D638  
Tensilebreaking strength  kg/cm^{2}  D638  
Tensilebreaking elongation  %  D638  200  250  150  200 
Flexuralyield strength  kg/cm^{2}  D790  
Flexural modulus  kg/cm^{2}  D790  24,000  5,300  25,000  6,000 
1% compressivedistortion stress  kg/cm^{2}  D659  255  55  260  60 
Compressiveyield strength  kg/cm^{2}  D659  840    870   
Shear strength  kg/cm^{2}  D732  590  430  600  435 
Rockwell hardness  R scale  D785  114  85  115  86 
Izodimpact strength 23°C  kg·cm/cm  D256  6  >50  5  50 
(1/2”) 30°C  kg·cm/cm  D256  4  10  4  10 
Linear expansion coefficient  /°C  D696  8×10^{5}    7×10^{5}   
Heat distortion temperature (18.56kg/cm^{2})  °C  D648  65    67   
Heat distortion temperature (4.64kg/cm^{2})  °C  150    155    
Melting point  °C  215    215    
Specific gravity    1.13    1.14    
Water absorption 2 hours at 100°C 
%  D570  4.4    4.3   
Water absorption 24 hours at 23°C 
%  1.9    1.8    
Burning characteristics  UL D635 
94V2 Selfextinguishing 
94V2 Selfextinguishing 
Property  Unit  Test method (ASTM) 
CM3001N  CM3006 CM3006E 


In a dry state  Atmospheric equilibrium water absorption 2.5% 
In a dry state  Atmospheric equilibrium water absorption 2.5% 

Tensileyield strength  kg/cm^{2}  D638  800  530  810  550 
Tensileyield elongation  %  D638  
Tensilebreaking strength  kg/cm^{2}  D638  
Tensilebreaking elongation  %  D638  110  200  80  200 
Flexuralyield strength  kg/cm^{2}  D790  
Flexural modulus  kg/cm^{2}  D790  28,000  12,000  28,000  12,000 
1% compressivedistorton stress  kg/cm^{2}  D659  280  90  285  95 
Compressiveyield strength  kg/cm^{2}  D659  910    910   
Shear strength  kg/cm^{2}  D732  675  600  680  600 
Rockwell hardness  R scale  D785  118  100  118  101 
Izodimpact strength 23°C  kg· cm/cm  D256  4  14  4  14 
(1/2”) 30°C  kg·cm/cm  D256  2  7  2  7 
Linear expansion coefficient  /°C  D696  10×10^{5}    9×10^{5}   
Heat distortion temperature (18.56kg/cm^{2})  °C  D648  75    77   
Heat distortion temperature (4.64kg/cm^{2})  °C  180    180    
Melting point  °C  255    255    
Specific gravity    1.14    1.14    
Water absorption 2 hours at 100°C 
%  D570  3.9    3.8   
Water absorption 24 hours at 23°C 
%  1.5    1.4    
Burning characteristics  UL D635 
94V2 Selfextinguishing 
94V2 Selfextinguishing 
 Figure 1: Change in yield strength as a function of temperature (nylon 6)
 Figure 2: Change in yield strength as a function of temperature (nylon 66)
 Figure 3: Change in flexural modulus as a function of temperature (nylon 6)
 Figure 4: Change in flexural modulus as a function of temperature (nylon 66)
Figure 5: Change in impact strength as a function of temperature
Resistance to thermal degradation
Ⅰ. Continuous thermal resistance
Not only nylons but all plastic materials exhibit degradation of physical properties when exposed to heat and oxygen in hightemperature atmospheres. The degree of degradation increases with higher temperatures or longer durations of exposure.
The stressstrain curve from a tensile test most clearly expresses this degradation of properties.
Figure 6 shows an example model for nylon 66. When exposed to high temperatures, at first elongation at breakdown declines gradually (the yield point does not change significantly). Finally, the yield point terminates (brittle fracture failure) and stress and elongation decrease.
Figure 6: Change in the stressstrain curve resulting from thermal degradation
We can conclude that the change in elongation allows us to determine the extent of degradation. Figures 7, 8 and 9 show the change in elongation, tensile strength and impact strength in CM1021 and CM1026 resulting from exposure to high temperatures. Figures 10, 11 and 12 show the change in elongation, tensile strength and impact strength in CM3001N and CM3006 resulting from exposure to high temperatures. Clearly you can see higher temperatures and longer durations lead to greater declines in elongation and tensile strength.

Figure 7: Thermal degradation test (Tensile strength)

Figure 8: Thermal degradation test
(Tensilebreaking elongation) 
Figure 9: Thermal degradation test (Izodimpact strength)

Figure 10: Thermal degradation test
(Change in tensile strength) 
Figure 11: Thermal degradation test
(Change in tensilebreaking elongation) 
Figure 12: Thermal degradation test
(Change in Izod impact strength)
Based on this data, Figure 13 plots the temperature and time where elongation and tensile strength have decreased 50%.
Figure 13: Thermal resistance (Halflife of tensile properties)
This is referred to as an Arrhenius plot, which facilitates estimating the relationship between temperature and lifetime. The same expressed in a formula would look like this:
Figure 13 shows a stark difference between CM1026 and CM3006 on the one hand and CM1021 and CM3001N on the other.
Table 2 shows the impact strength results from a tensileimpact strength test. Figures 14, 15 and 16 compare these results with a foreign competitor’s heatresistant grade product.
 Figure 14: Thermal degradation properties
(tensile strength, 180°C)  Figure 15: Thermal degradation properties
(tensile impact, 150°C) Figure 16: Thermal degradation properties
(tensile impact, 120°C)
Conditions  Tensile impact strength(kg·cm/cm^{2})  

CM3006  CM3006(Black)  Foreign competitor A’s Heatresistant grade 

Before treatment  331  318  257 
180°C 2 days 5 days 10 days 
567 420 116 
560 400 113 
485 412 125 
150°C 2 days 5 days 10 days 
545 330 221 
455 320 215 
401 388 226 
120°C 2 days 5 days 10 days 
456 460 449 
391 427 444 
359 321 402 
(Notes)
1) Test: ASTM D1822 1/8"t L type
2) Measured at 23°C, RH65%
3) 150°C and 120°C tests still underway.
Ⅱ. Heat cycling properties
Nylon is used frequently in environments where temperatures fluctuate from high to low and low to high. For example, nylon used in engine compartment components is exposed to a repetitive cycling of temperatures as high as 120°C (when the engine is running) to as cold as 30°C to 40°C (when left outside in the bitter cold). To anticipate how a material will perform under such a severe environment, heat cycle tests are performed. The test specimen is left in 120°C air for one hour, then immediately exposed to a 40°C environment. The results of these heat cycle tests are shown in Table 3.
Even after 70 cycles, both CM1026 and CM3006 retained at least 90% of their tensilebreaking strength. CM1026 retained 80% of its elongation and CM3006 retained 60%. CM1026 and CM3006 both retained at least 80% of their Izodimpact strength.
Unit  CM1026  CM3006  

Before treatment Tensilebreaking strength Elongation Izodimpact strength 
kg/cm^{2} % kg·cm/cm 
727 231 4.9 
818 97 4.1 
10 cycles Tensilebreaking strength Elongation Izodimpact strength 
kg/cm^{2} % kg·cm/cm 
718 185 4.7 
888 90 3.9 
10 cycles Tensilebreaking strength Elongation Izodimpact strength 
kg/cm^{2} % kg·cm/cm 
739 189 4.4 
822 72 3.6 
10 cycles Tensilebreaking strength Elongation Izodimpact strength 
kg/cm^{2} % kg·cm/cm 
748 178 4.3 
809 63 3.6 
10 cycles Tensilebreaking strength Elongation Izodimpact strength 
kg/cm^{2} % kg·cm/cm 
692 182 4.3 
783 58 3.7 
10 cycles Tensilebreaking strength Elongation Izodimpact strength 
kg/cm^{2} % kg·cm/cm 
679 163 4.0 
742 55 3.5 
(Notes)
1) Conditions 120°C 1hr 40°C 1hr
2) Test specimen: ASTM D638 Type I (3mm thickness), n = 10
3) Measurement conditions: 23°C RH65%
Ⅲ. Electrical properties
Demand is growing for heatresistant nylon in materials and components used in electronics equipment. In these applications, the relationship between electrical properties and temperature, as well as any change in electrical properties when exposed to high temperatures for extended periods of time, are important factors to consider.
Compared to standard nylons, CM1026 and CM3006 experience little change in electrical properties when exposed to high temperatures.
Figures show the change in volume resistivity and dielectric tangent when exposed to 150°C or 120°C for extended durations of time, compared to standard nylon grades.
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20
Figure 21
Figure 22
Ⅳ. Resistance to oil
In recent years, more and more automotive components are taking advantage of nylon’s superior resistance to oil. CM1026 and CM3006 are the ideal materials to use in hightemperature environments such as automotive engine compartments, where components come in direct contact with gasoline, brake oil or gear oil. Examples of some applications include fuel strainers, oil reserve tanks, canisters, fuel pipes and more.
Table 4 shows the change in properties of CM3006 when immersed in regular or highoctane, commercially available gasoline for three months at room temperature to demonstrate resistance to gasoline. Izodimpact strength and Rockwell hardness remained mostly unchanged, tensileyield strength declined only slightly and elongation grew. This could be attributable to toluene or other aromatic hydrocarbons contained in the gasoline.
Immersion duration (months) 
Tensilebreaking strength kg/cm^{2} 
Elongation (%) 
Izodimpact strength kg·cm/cm 
Rockwell hardness R scale 

0 1 2 3 
895 831 849 849 
95 85 125 150 
4.5 4.3 4.5 4.7 
121 122 122 122 
Immersion duration (months) 
Tensilebreaking strength kg/cm^{2} 
Elongation (%) 
Izodimpact strength kg·cm/cm 
Rockwell hardness R scale 

0 1 2 3 
895 828 827 827 
95 75 160 140 
4.5 4.6 4.9 4.7 
121 122 121 121^{} 
(Notes)
1) Plans call for the immersion test to continue for two years at room temperature
2) Test conditions: 23°C RH65%
Tensile: ASTM D638 n = 5
Impact: ASTM D256 n = 10
Hardness: ASTM D785 n = 10
Table 5 shows the results of changes in weight and properties after 300 or 600 hours immersed in 120°C synthetic gasoline (isooctane/toluene = 70/30Vol%). These results are illustrated in Figures 2326.
Material and category  Treatment time(hrs)  

0  302  600  
CM3006 Weight change % Tensileyield strength kg/cm^{2} Tensilebreaking strength Elongation % Tensileimpact strength kg·cm/cm^{2} 
 814 622 98 317 
+0.56 828 612 53 377 
+0.87 676 514 66 370 
CM3006 (Black) Weight change % Tensileyield strength kg/cm^{2} Tensilebreaking strength Elongation % Tensileimpact strength kg·cm/cm^{2} 
 805 666 99 311 
+0.58 815 587 61 398 
+0.93 661 481 67 380 
Foreign competitor A’s heatresistant grade BLACK Weight change % Tensileyield strength kg/cm^{2} Tensilebreaking strength Elongation % Tensileimpact strength kg·cm/cm^{2} 
 808 588 37 327 
+0.49 815 617 41 397 
+0.77 675 518 38 375 
(Notes)
1) Gasoline: isooctane/toluene = 70/30(vol%)
2) Temperature: 120±5°C
3) Test
Tensile: ASTM D638 Type13mm n = 5
Tensile impact: ASTM D1822 1/16" L TYPE n = 10
Figure 23
Resistance to hot gasoline
(Weight increase (%))
Gasoline: isooctane/toluene = 70/30 (vol%)
Temperature: ±5°C
Sample: Tensile test specimen (ASTM D638 Type1 3 mm)
Figure 24:
Resistance to hot gasoline
(Tensileyield strength)
Gasoline: isooctane/toluene = 70/30 (vol%)
Temperature: 120±5°C
Sample: ASTM D638 Type1 3mm
○CM3006
●CM3006 (Black)
× Foreign competitor A’s heatresistant grade
Figure 25
Resistance to hot gasoline
(Elongation)
Gasoline: isooctane/toluene = 70/30 (vol%)
Temperature: 120±5°C
Sample: ASTM D638 Type1 3mm
○CM3006
●CM3006 (Black)
× Foreign competitor A’s heatresistant grade
Figure 26:
Resistance to hot gasoline
(Tensileimpact strength)
Gasoline: isooctane/toluene = 70/30 (vol%)
Temperature: 120±5°C
Sample: ASTM D1822 1/16" L TYPE
○CM3006
●CM3006 (Black)
× Foreign competitor A’s heatresistant grade
Next, to investigate the effects of exposure to gear oil, our nylon products were immersed in 80°C or 100°C gear oil continuously for 90 days. The measurement results of tensile properties and impact strength are shown in Figures 28 and 29. No property changed significantly, confirming that our nylons are largely unaffected by the test conditions.
As shown in Figures 30 and 31, exposure to brake fluid leads to greater elongation and impact strength and reduced tensileyield strength.
 Figure 27: Resistance to gear oil (Elongation)
 Figure 28: Resistance to gear oil
(tensilebreaking strength, impact strength)
 Figure 29: Resistance to brake fluid (elongation)
 Figure 30: Resistance to brake fluid (elongation)